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沼气工程运行过程中有哪些常见问题?

时间:2021-05-28
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一、因养殖场的经营风险关闭,无产沼原料?
1、 Due to the operation risk of the farm closed, no biogas raw materials?
养殖场经营状况的好坏直接影响到大中型沼气工程的实施和运营效果。如影响到沼气工程粪便原料的收集和沼气产量,还可能影响到沼气的生产成本等。
The management status of farms directly affects the implementation and operation effect of large and medium-sized biogas projects. For example, it will affect the collection of manure materials and biogas production, and may also affect the production cost of biogas.
解决办法:取找周边畜禽粪便或有机工业废弃物作为替补原料,发展集中式气工程。在养殖规模不足的情况下, 增加一台粉碎机, 实现粪便与秸秆混合发酵,可使产气量得到保障和提高。同时应加强管理和运营,通过生产有机肥和开展综合利用,提高沼气工程的运行效益。
The solution: take the surrounding livestock manure or organic industrial waste as alternative raw materials to develop the centralized gas project. In the case of insufficient cultivation scale, adding a pulverizer to realize the mixed fermentation of manure and straw can guarantee and improve the gas production. At the same time, management and operation should be strengthened to improve the operation efficiency of biogas project through the production of organic fertilizer and comprehensive utilization.
二、沼气发酵保温和增温的技术有什么风险?
2、 What are the risks of biogas fermentation technology?
沼气发酵有中温、近中温、常温发酵。沼气产量受发酵温度的变化影响较大,采用不同温度发酵对项目的产气量及运营成本也有较大影响。由于一些项目地处冬季冰冷地区,往往达不到中温,不但会严重影响产气, 还有可能冻坏工程设施与设备。
Biogas fermentation has medium temperature, near medium temperature and normal temperature. Biogas production is greatly affected by the change of fermentation temperature, and different temperature fermentation also has a great impact on the gas production and operation cost of the project. Because some projects are located in cold winter areas, they often can not reach the middle temperature, which will not only seriously affect the gas production, but also freeze the engineering facilities and equipment.
解决办法:为项目正常运行,首先对必要的项目设施采取保温措施;在设计施工中,采取太阳增温和加温装置可对产沼原料增温;a好的增温方式是通过发电机组的余热实现增温,达到热电联产。也可使用沼气或然煤锅炉作为加温的应急热源, 保障沼气工程实现中温正常运行。
Solutions: for the normal operation of the project, first of all, take insulation measures for the necessary project facilities; In the design and construction, the solar heating device can increase the temperature of biogas raw materials; A good way to increase the temperature is to increase the temperature through the waste heat of the generator set to achieve cogeneration. The biogas or coal boiler can also be used as the emergency heat source to ensure the normal operation of the biogas project at medium temperature.
                             生物脱硫
三、畜禽场消毒水对沼气发酵会有影响吗?
3、 Does disinfected water of livestock farm affect biogas fermentation?
因畜禽场对棚舍和粪污水消毒灭菌, 导致产沼原料PH值过高而杀灭厌氧菌, 造成少产气和不产气的事故经常发生。
Due to the disinfection and sterilization of shed and fecal sewage in livestock and poultry farms, the pH value of biogas raw materials is too high to kill anaerobic bacteria, resulting in less gas production and no gas production accidents.
解决措施:项目设应设定合理的酸化调节池, 通过酸化调节只有合格的产沼原料才能进入厌氧发酵装置, 不致于杀灭厌氧菌, 造成少产气和不产气的事故发生。酸化调节池同时还具有沉砂、去浮渣、调节高峰用气备料的功能。
Solutions: the project design should set up a reasonable acidification regulation pool, through acidification regulation, only qualified biogas production raw materials can enter the anaerobic fermentation device, so as to avoid killing anaerobic bacteria, resulting in less gas production and no gas production accidents. At the same time, the acidification regulating tank also has the functions of settling sand, removing scum, regulating peak gas consumption and preparing materials.
四、沼气用不完排空破坏臭氧层,不符合环保要求,怎么办?
4、 What should we do if we can't use up biogas to destroy the ozone layer, which does not meet the requirements of environmental protection?
一些沼气项目用的是湿式常压自排气柜,会造成沼气泄漏,虽然对工程本身不造成危害, 但从环保角度来说是不允许的。因为沼气中的甲烷比空气轻, 一但泄漏直升高空。由甲烷气体引起的温室效应是二氧化碳的21倍,1m3甲烷相当于21m3二氧化碳。
Some biogas projects use wet atmospheric pressure self exhaust cabinet, which will cause biogas leakage. Although it does not cause harm to the project itself, it is not allowed from the perspective of environmental protection. Because methane in biogas is lighter than air, once it leaks, it goes up into the air. The greenhouse effect caused by methane is 21 times of that of carbon dioxide. 1 m3 methane is equivalent to 21 m3 carbon dioxide.
解决措施:首先对管理人员加强技术培训, 对进出料与产气量定期统计, 寻找出沼气工程中进料浓度、进料温度、进料量与产气量、产气高峰之间的关系, 以用气量控制进料量和进料时间, 做到以需定产, 由贮气柜作调节, 一般不会排空。
Solutions: first of all, strengthen the technical training for the management personnel, make regular statistics on the input and output and gas production, find out the relationship between the feed concentration, feed temperature, feed volume and gas production and gas production peak in the biogas project, control the feed volume and feed time with gas consumption, so as to determine the production according to the demand, which is regulated by the gas storage tank and will not be emptied generally.
为防万一, 项目沼气气柜上端安装低压防爆行程报警器一个, 在预警显示后启动加温锅炉, 为沼气工程加温。另外还可安装一个沼气燃烧装置(火炬)。沼气是宝贵的, 咱们得充分利用, 更不应该排空。
In case of emergency, a low-pressure explosion-proof travel alarm is installed on the upper end of the biogas holder of the project. After the warning display, the heating boiler is started to heat the biogas project. In addition, a biogas burning device (torch) can be installed. Biogas is precious. We should make full use of it, let alone empty it.
五、沼气工程起步较晚,运营怎样维护?
5、 Biogas project started late, how to maintain the operation?
我国多数地区大中型沼气工程起步相对较晚,运营管理经验相对不足和技术人员相对缺乏。
The large and medium-sized biogas projects in most areas of China started relatively late, and the operation and management experience and professional and technical personnel are relatively insufficient.
解决措施:工程运行操作人员在上岗前必须行培训,掌握工程的管理技术和操作要点,并严格按操作规程进行操作。建设单位必须培训一定数量的技术人员和操作人员, 持证上岗。严禁违反操作规程的行为,工程安全稳定运行。
Solution: the operation personnel of the project must be trained before taking up their posts, master the management technology and operation points of the project, and operate in strict accordance with the operation regulations. The construction unit must train a certain number of professional and technical personnel and operators to work with certificates. It is strictly forbidden to violate the operation regulations, and the project runs safely and stably.
六、影响沼气项目经济指标的a主要因素是什么?
6、 What are the main factors affecting the economic indicators of biogas project?
项目运行中销售收入对项目的各项经济指标影响a大,是a敏感的因素,其次是经营成本。
During the operation of the project, the sales revenue has a great influence on the economic indicators of the project, which is a sensitive factor, followed by the operating cost.
解决措施:应注意考察和吸取国内其他大中型沼气工程的运营管理经验。项目建成后一定要大力开拓市场,努力扩大三沼产品的销售量。同时,要在降低经营成本上下功夫,这样才能取得预期的经济效益。
Solutions: attention should be paid to the investigation and absorption of the operation and management experience of other large and medium-sized biogas projects in China. After the completion of the project, we must vigorously explore the market and strive to expand the sales volume of Sanzhao products. At the same time, efforts should be made to reduce operating costs so as to achieve the expected economic benefits.

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